Blood vessels and nerves
The main nerve moving and supplying sensation to the foot, the posterior tibial nerve, enters the sole of the foot running behind the inside bump on the ankle.
Blood is supplied to the foot mainly by two arteries. The more important one runs right behind the main nerve and the other runs down the top of the foot. The main blood vessel and nerve are protected by the inside bump of the ankle and branch on the sole of the foot. The artery on the top of the foot divides in a similar way, reaching right to the tips of the toes.
The small but important tendon of the posterior tibial muscle runs under the bump on the inside of the ankle and supports the longitudinal arch.
The large anterior tibial muscle comes from the shin and is attached to the inner side of the foot. When it contracts, the foot is raised from the ground.
The Achilles tendon is the common tendon for the calf muscles. It is attached to the heel at the back and plays a role in moving the foot. When it is flexed, the heel is raised, which is the most important phase of walking.
Extensor tendons run along the top of the foot to the toes. The extensor muscles of the toes are on the shin and work together with the anterior tibial muscle. Thus the toes are straightened by the muscles of the lower leg, while they are flexed by the foot’s own muscles.